Forecast Definitions
The precise definition of a forecast is often a source of confusion in the forecasting industry. Consider these statements that use the term forecast:
 "The forecast for the next 48 hours is 5 MW, 10 MW, 7 MW..."
 "The hour ahead forecast this morning was 5 MW, 10 MW, 7 MW..."
In Statement A, the user refers to a series of expected values issued from a single forecast. In Statement B, the user refers to a series of expected values with the same lookahead time that are issued from different forecasts.
An evaluation challenge arises if Statement A is extended to include a new 48hour duration forecast every hour. In this scenario, many forecasts exist at each evaluation time. More information is needed to focus the analysis to a particular application.
Statement B suggests an alternative strategy: the forecast user or the forecast provider parses forecast data into a time series for evaluation according to her application. For example, from many 48hour length forecasts, a time series of forecast values with lead times of 1hour ahead could be compiled to evaluate forecasts that support participation in a particular market. Or, a time series of forecast values for each hour of the day ahead could be compiled from forecasts issued at the same time each day to evaluate forecasts input to a production cost model. In each case, the forecast under evaluation is a continuous, nonoverlapping time series that can be compared to observations.
The Solar Forecast Arbiter is designed to analyze these usersupplied, continuous, nonoverlapping time series. We refer to this as a forecast evaluation time series.
The Solar Forecast Arbiter provides a taxonomy to allow forecast users and forecast providers to clearly and completely describe each forecast evaluation time series. For most use cases, the user is required to consider the forecast application, parse the forecast data into a continuous, nonoverlapping time series for evaluation, and provide the parsed data to the Solar Forecast Arbiter for analysis – not the individual forecast runs that went into the parsed forecast.
The sections below define and illustrate the key concepts (forecast data points, runs, and evaluation time series) and the attributes that describe forecasts.
Forecast data point
A forecast data point is a single (time, value) data pair. Time can label a moment in time or an interval of time, as defined by the interval label. For example, a time of 17:00 can label the 1hour interval length period from 17:00 to 18:00 (beginning label), 16:00 to 17:00 (ending label) or instantaneously at 17:00 (instantaneous label). Value has a interval value type (e.g., mean, minimum) and variable (e.g. power, GHI). The variable defines the unit.
Forecast run
A forecast run is a sequence of one or more forecast data points issued at the same issue time. The time between the issue time and the first forecast data point time is the lead time to start. The run length is the time between the first forecast data point and the last forecast data point.
Most forecast runs in the Solar Forecast Arbiter are only as long as the predetermined evaluation scenario requires. For example, evaluations of forecasts with 15minute interval, 1hour length require a series of forecast runs that each contain only 4 forecast data points. Forecast providers often create runs that are longer than a particular Solar Forecast Arbiter evaluation scenario requires. Typically, forecast providers must parse these forecast runs into a forecast evaluation time series (discussed next).
Individual forecast runs are not archived or searchable except under the stretch goal 1.G. Compare multiple overlapping forecast runs to measurements.
Forecast evaluation time series
A forecast evaluation time series is the concatenation of a series of nonoverlapping forecast runs with sequential issue times, as shown in Figure 1 below. Each forecast run has the same attributes, except for the issue time. For example, three forecast runs (shown in green in Figure 1) could be:
 {(13:00, 10MW)} issued at 12:00, and
 {(14:00, 7MW)} issued at 13:00, and
 {(15:00, 5MW)} issued at 14:00.
From these three runs, the user could upload an hourahead, hourinterval forecast evaluation time series of:
 {(13:00, 10MW), (14:00, 7MW), (15:00, 5MW)}
These three runs have a 1hour run length / issue frequency. The runs must have the same run length and issue frequency to create a continuous, nonoverlapping forecast evaluation time series.
The framework also supports forecast evaluation time series that are the concatenation of forecast runs with more than one interval, so long as the intervals do not overlap. Figure 2 shows how three different 75minuteahead, 15minute interval, 1hour length forecast runs may be parsed and concatenated into a single forecast evaluation time series.
In most cases, the original forecast interval is retained, (e.g., 15minutes in Figure 2) or intervals are combined to a longer interval (e.g., 15minute values averaged to hourly values).
The issue time of day attribute describes the time of day at which a forecast is issued. For example, a user may require a day ahead forecast to be issued by 16:00 each day. As shown in Figures 1 and 2, a forecast evaluation time series is often constructed of forecast runs that are issued multiple times within a single day. In this case, the issue time of day describes the first time of day that the forecast is issued. Subsequent issue times are uniquely determined by the first issue time and the run length / issue frequency. This approach allows users to succinctly describe both intraday and longer forecast applications using a common set of attributes. See Forecast evaluation time series attributes for more examples.
For most use cases (1.A1.E), the Solar Forecast Arbiter expects forecast providers to upload a forecast evaluation time series. For the Forecast Trial use case (1.F), the Solar Forecast Arbiter expects forecast providers to regularly upload a forecast run that the Solar Forecast Arbiter can append to a forecast evaluation time series. For some forecast trials, the Solar Forecast Arbiter will allow the upload of a forecast run that is longer than the run length / issue frequency attribute. This behavior is analogous to a forecast user falling back on an older forecast if a new forecast is not submitted on time. Some applications may not support this flexibility (e.g. a market with strict data formats) and therefore the Solar Forecast Arbiter will reject forecast runs that are longer than run length / issue frequency. The setting is determined before the trial starts.
A stretch goal is to support the use case of uploading and analyzing multiple forecast runs, optionally with the same valid times (1.G). For example, the user could upload a new 24hour length forecast that is issued each hour of the day. Later, the user could then use the framework to merge the forecast runs into a 0, 1, or 2hour ahead forecast for evaluation. Figure 3 shows three forecasts runs (green) merged into two different evaluation forecasts (blue, red).
Forecast evaluation time series attributes
The Solar Forecast Arbiter uses the set of attributes defined below to describe the characteristics of a forecast evaluation time series. This structure allows any type of forecast typically utilized in the solar energy field to be evaluated.
A forecast evaluation time series is described by the following attributes:
 Issue time of day  The time of day that a forecast run is issued, e.g. 00:30. For forecast runs issued multiple times within one day (e.g. hourly), this specifies the first issue time of day. Additional issue times are uniquely determined by the first issue time and the run length / issue frequency attribute.
 Lead time to start  The difference between the issue time and the start of the first forecast interval, e.g. 1 hour.
 Interval length  The length of time that each data point represents, e.g. 5 minutes, 1 hour.
 Run length / issue frequency  The total length of a single issued forecast run, e.g. 1 hour. To enforce a continuous, nonoverlapping sequence, this is equal to the forecast run issue frequency.
 Interval label  Indicates if a time labels the beginning or the ending of an interval average, or indicates an instantaneous value, e.g. beginning, ending, instant
 Interval value type  The type of the data in each interval of the forecast, e.g. mean, maximum, median.
 Variable  The variable in the forecast, e.g. power, GHI, DNI. Each variable is associated with a standard unit.
 Site  The predefined site that the forecast is for, e.g. Power Plant X or Aggregate Y.
A forecast must be associated with a predefined site. The site, not the forecast, defines geographic location and time zone. The variable determines the content of the forecast evaluation time series.
The table below shows the attributes for three different examples. We assume all intervals are labeled with the interval beginning time in these examples.

Forecast User A requires hourly forecasts of average GHI at Sensor X located in the America/Denver time zone. The forecasts are to have 5minute intervals and be updated 75minute ahead of the hour.

Forecast User B requires day ahead forecasts of hourly average power at Power Plant Y issued at 13:00 each day in the Etc/GMT+7 time zone.

Forecast User C requires intraday forecasts for the minimum power in each forecast interval for Aggregate Z specified in the America/Phoenix time zone. The forecasts are to be issued every 3 hours with 15minute interval length and 3hour forecast length.
Attribute  User A  User B  User C 

Issue time of day  00:45  13:00  00:00 
Lead time to start  75 minutes  11 hours  0 minutes 
Interval length  5 minutes  1 hour  15 minutes 
Run length / issue freq.  1 hour  24 hours  3 hours 
Interval label  Beginning  Beginning  Beginning 
Interval value type  Mean  Mean  Minimum 
Variable  GHI (W/m2)  Power (MW)  Power (MW) 
Site  Sensor X (America/Denver)  Power Plant Y (Etc/GMT+7)  Aggregate Z (America/Phoenix) 
Probabilistic forecasts
The Solar Forecast Arbiter quantifies probabilistic forecasts using cumulative distribution functions (CDFs). A CDF is represented here as a sequence of (variable value, percentile) pairs, where percentiles range from 0 to 100.
A probabilistic forecast is defined by fixing a set of values for either the variable being forecast, or the percentiles being forecast. For each value in the set, a separate forecast evaluation time series is uploaded, each forecast data point of which comprises one (variable value, percentile) pair of the CDF at that point in time. Therefore, each forecast evaluation time series describes (variable value, percentile) points at multiple times while holding either value or percentile constant. At a point in time the CDF is represented by the collection of (variable value, percentile) pairs across the set of forecast evaluation time series.
Consider a few simple examples. A probabilistic forecast may be the probability that generation is less than 10 MW at each point in time. This probabilistic forecast consists of a single forecast evaluation time series, which in turn contains a single number (the probability) at each forecast data point. Another probabilistic forecast may quantify the generation that corresponds to the 50th percentile of a CDF, i.e., the median generation value. Here, too, the probabilistic forecast is a single forecast evaluation time series containing one number (the generation) at each forecast data point. These two probabilistic forecasts can be summarized as:
Case  Constant value  Forecast type 

Prob(Power < 10 MW)  Variable (Power) = 10 MW  Percentile 
p50 Power  Percentile = 50  Variable (Power) 
Probabilistic forecasts can also be a group of forecast evaluation time series each describing a different point on the CDF. For example, a user may be interested in the probability that power is less than each of a range of power levels. In this case, one forecast evaluation time series is made for each power level. The group of forecast evaluation time series is specified by fixing constant values along the x axis of the CDF and the forecasts are percentiles:
Case  Constant value  Forecast type 

Prob(Power < 1 MW)  Variable (Power) = 1 MW  Percentile 
Prob(Power < 10 MW)  Variable (Power) = 10 MW  Percentile 
Prob(Power < 20 MW)  Variable (Power) = 20 MW  Percentile 
Prob(Power < 30 MW)  Variable (Power) = 30 MW  Percentile 
Prob(Power < 40 MW)  Variable (Power) = 40 MW  Percentile 
Prob(Power < 50 MW)  Variable (Power) = 50 MW  Percentile 
Or, a user may be interested in the power at a number of percentiles. In this case, the group of forecast evaluation time series is specified by constant values along the y axis of the CDF and the forecasts are powers:
Case  Constant value  Forecast type 

p0 Power  Percentile = 0  Variable (Power) 
p5 Power  Percentile = 5  Variable (Power) 
p10 Power  Percentile = 10  Variable (Power) 
p30 Power  Percentile = 30  Variable (Power) 
p50 Power  Percentile = 50  Variable (Power) 
p70 Power  Percentile = 70  Variable (Power) 
p90 Power  Percentile = 90  Variable (Power) 
p95 Power  Percentile = 95  Variable (Power) 
p100 Power  Percentile = 100  Variable (Power) 
Or the user may only be interested in points that correspond to a central credible interval:
Case  Constant value  Forecast type 

p10 Power  Percentile = 10  Variable (Power) 
p90 Power  Percentile = 90  Variable (Power) 
Users may specify as many percentile or variable constant values as is needed to accurately communicate a probabilistic forecast.
Probabilistic forecast attributes
The metadata for a probabilistic forecast is the same as for a forecast evaluation time series with the addition of two attributes:
 Axis  The axis on which the constant values of the CDF is specified. The axis can be either x (constant variable values) or y (constant percentiles). The axis is fixed and the same for all forecast evaluation time series in the probabilistic forecast.
 Constant values  The variable values or percentiles for the set of forecast evaluation time series in the probabilistic forecast.
Framework user and framework administrator
A framework user is an individual or organization that uses the capabilities of Solar Forecast Arbiter to evaluate and analyze forecasts. A framework user can be a forecast provider (one who creates a forecast), a forecast user (one using a forecast for a defined purpose), researchers, and others.
The framework administrator operates Solar Forecast Arbiter, ensures data security and anonymity, establishes standards for forecast evaluation, supports observational and forecast data exchange among users, and provides benchmark forecasts.